Apr 24, 2011 -- posted by Evert Mouw
You want your book to use Roman numbers for the first few pages, and Indian (often called “Arabic”, although the Indians invented them) numerals for the rest of your book? PDF supports multiple page numbering styles, even in the same document. This was added since PDF version 1.3, and can be found in the 1.7 specification under “12.4.2 Page Labels”.
Each page in a PDF document shall be identified by an integer page index that expresses the page’s relative position within the document. In addition, a document may optionally define page labels (PDF 1.3) to identify each page visually on the screen or in print. Page labels and page indices need not coincide: the indices shall be fixed, running consecutively through the document starting from 0 for the first page, but the labels may be specified in any way that is appropriate for the particular document.
Unfortunately, not all PDF readers follow the specs. I have tried a few common readers under Windows, all of them recently updated. Acrobat Reader X and Nitro PDF Reader 1.4 (beta) do great. Sumatra 1.5 and PDF-Xchange_2.5 fail miserably.
Linux applications show the same variety. I used ISO images from the latest Fedora 15 distribution. Evince 2.91, the default PDF viewer when using Gnome, did great. But for KDE, Okular 0.12.1 failed badly. (2011-07-19 update: Daniel Oberländer submitted a patch to KDE bug 187237 enabling page labels.)
Screenshots are shown below. I didn’t test a Mac, sorry guys.
Development version of KDE Okular (patched by Daniel):