technology and zen of life

“A heisenbug (named after the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle) is a computer bug that disappears or alters its characteristics when an attempt is made to study it.”

Photography now at 1,000,000,000,000 frames per second!


Move over high speed camera here comes fem-to camera. Imagine being able to capture frames so fast that you can see light moving a millimeter of a distance and no this is not fantasy but something that actually has been done. Now think about the various scientific capabilities of such a technological wonder; from studying light waves as move and interact with various objects and mediums to seeing around the corner, checking if a fruit is ripe by shining light on it and possibly many more.

The paper on how they use this technology to see around the corners can be found on

Here is the TED video: Read the rest of this entry »

Reverse-engineering the cascode

(from –

Cascode (shown in Fig. 1) is well known and widely used circuit for creating large-impedances in integrated circuits. Cascode circuits also provide another advantage i.e. isolation between input and output ports and thereby reducing the Miller-effect and as a result cascodes have a good frequency performance. And when impedances achieved from cascode circuits are not good enough, we go on to use active-cascodes or regulated-cascodes. Even though cascodes are affected by the limitations of headroom (voltage swing), there are work-arounds for this problem that have been figured out by circuit designers (the smart engineers again). The question that I want to discuss here is – how did someone (must be a genius) think of this circuit which provides an elegant area-efficient solution for achieving large impedances consequently large voltage gains?

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Why do we perform small signal analysis?

Why do we perform small signal analysis, when we are analyzing or designing analog circuits? This is a fundamental question that I think, is not discussed rigorously enough in the classes or text books on analog circuit design. I will attempt to qualitatively address this question here in this blogpost.

Fig. 1 a) Small-signal MOSFET model and b) small-signal bipolar model

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